Some of these have alternative perfectives, e. This may involve: 1 The insertion of a syllable into a perfective infinitive to form the imperfective. Similarly, pf. Note Verbs in this category have no perfectives. Most prefixes are associated with particular prepositions, as follows. Meaning into out of as far as behind out of on to detaching across approach under attaching down from together with Note a Prefixed verbs in some meanings also have non-prepositional government, or government through other prepositions. Shukshin We were all speaking at once, interrupting each other, laughing Note a The imperfective here does not move events, but describes actions as they develop, focusing on circumstances rather than completion.
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Note For frequentative meanings see 2 ii , 3 , , 2 , , 2 i. He chased me for a long time and finally caught me up This exemplifies the comparison which has been made between the use of imperfectives and the filming of a scene, and between the use of some perfectives and a snapshot. I have forgotten, I forget He is late but has arrived; cf. To use a past tense here in Russian would imply that the direct statement had contained a past tense.
The statements and responses show that a phone call has been made, that two people have met before, that Cement is one of the books read by a particular person. These are bald statements of fact, with no fleshing-out of the context Aspect and no stress on the achievement of a result.
Have you aired the room? Have you seen Lena? But I told you about this! Someone has probably had the window open in here The implication of this example is that the window has been opened but is now shut again. I liked the look of them and stopped.
Who washed the dishes? Who tidied the room? Emphasis centres not on the action, but on the identity of the person who performed it. Tanya, was it you who sorted the books in the cupboard? Use of the imperfective may also imply that something usually untoward happened while the action was being carried out e. My papers were lying on the window-sill.
Who made such a good job of tidying the books into the cupboard? The room is beautifully clean. I wonder who tidied it? Who invented radio? Who discovered America? Who found the keys? Who broke the cup? Where did you buy the evening paper? He has not arrived yet. How will you be sending the books, as ordinary printed matter or registered? What are you going to do? What are you going to order? Will you have tea or coffee? Will you find the house? And what are you going to do? Conserve nature! Carry on writing!
Shut the window! Make a note of my telephone number. Would you mind writing it down, please, I am in a terrible hurry! Get well soon! Pass down the aircraft, please! Have some sugar!
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Take off your hat and coat! Sit down! Take off your coat! Sit properly! For example, a student at an examination knows the procedure: he selects a slip of paper with a question on it, prepares his answer and is invited to speak. Take a slip! Pay at the cash-desk! Note a These commands forbid actions which would not normally be performed deliberately, but might occur inadvertently or as the result of carelessness.
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Sputnik And anyway, why change the bodywork? Why not ask? How is that done? Introductory comments 1 In a passive construction, the natural object of an action becomes the grammatical subject. They are possible only with a passive participle see , cf. Introductory comments 1 If we compare the sentences i If he wakes his wife she will be angry ii If he woke his wife she would be angry then it is clear that the situation described in i may occur, while the situation described in ii is hypothetical.
The implication of statements of type ii is that the opposite situation obtains, e. What other answer could he have given? However, the two verbs have traditionally been treated as verbs of motion, and are accordingly dealt with in this section. Walk around for a bit, then wrap yourself in a towel, sit here and wait for me Verbs of Motion Figurative and idiomatic uses of verbs of motion Verbs of motion have a number of figurative or idiomatic meanings.
In most cases only one of a pair either the unidirectional or the multidirectional can be used in a particular figurative sense: the usual differential criteria between unidirectional and multidirectional do not apply when the verbs are used figuratively. See and They do not have imperfectives. This driver has clocked , km. Participles Participles. Introductory comments There are five verbal participles in Russian.
Note a The participle is also formed from a limited number of intransitive or semi-transitive verbs.
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They include synonyms or cognates of a number of unprefixed verbs which have no participle see Introductory comments 1 The perfective passive participle has a short predicative form and a long attributive form. It is derived only from verbs which are i perfective and ii transitive. Active participles have long forms only. A comma appears between the noun and the following participle which qualifies it. The main verb may be in the present, past or future tense of either aspect. See 1 ii.
Gerunds The gerund. They are found mainly in written Russian, coordinate or adverbial clauses English equivalents enclosed in parentheses in the following examples being preferred in speech. Either the two actions run in parallel or one interrupts the other. See 2 i. They also derive from nouns, verbs, numerals and pronouns.
Come here! Where has he come from?
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What is your first name? What is your name? What is your address?