Even by the end of the 19th century, however, new technologies began to emerge, many of them based on the same principles first developed for the telegraph system. In time, these new technologies would overshadow the telegraph, which would fall out of regular widespread usage. Although the telegraph has since been replaced by the even more convenient telephone, fax machine and Internet, its invention stands as a turning point in world history.
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History of the Internet
Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Italian inventor and engineer Guglielmo Marconi developed, demonstrated and marketed the first successful long-distance wireless telegraph and in broadcast the first transatlantic radio signal. In his 84 years, Thomas Edison acquired a record number of 1, patents singly or jointly and was the driving force behind such innovations as the phonograph, the incandescent light bulb and one of the earliest motion picture cameras.
The Internet got its start in the United States more than 50 years ago as a government weapon in the Cold War. For years, scientists and Alexander Graham Bell is best known for his invention of the telephone, for which he received his first patent in Despite the hundreds of lawsuits that would challenge his claim to the invention, none would prove successful.
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Born in Scotland and later becoming a U. In , Connecticut-born gun manufacturer Samuel Colt received a U. Colt founded a company to manufacture his revolving-cylinder pistol; however, sales were slow and the Black codes were restrictive laws designed to limit the freedom of African Americans and ensure their availability as a cheap labor force after slavery was abolished during the Civil War. Though the Union victory had given some 4 million slaves their freedom, the question of Serbian-American engineer and physicist Nikola Tesla made dozens of breakthroughs in the production, transmission and application of electric power.
He invented the first alternating current AC motor and developed AC generation and transmission technology. The automobile was first invented and perfected in Germany and France in the late s, though Americans quickly came to dominate the automotive industry in the first half of the twentieth century.
Henry Ford innovated mass-production techniques that became standard, and Ford, The Code of Hammurabi was one of the earliest and most complete written legal codes, proclaimed by the Babylonian king Hammurabi, who reigned from to B. Hammurabi expanded the city-state of Babylon along the Euphrates River to unite all of southern Mesopotamia. This Day In History. Early Forms of Long-Distance Communication Before the development of the electric telegraph in the 19th century revolutionized how information was transmitted across long distances, ancient civilizations such as those in China, Egypt and Greece used drumbeats or smoke signals to exchange information between far-flung points.
As they repay their loans, borrowers continue to share updates and dialogue with lenders via their profile pages. This direct web-based connection allows members themselves to take on many of the communication and recording tasks traditionally performed by local organizations, bypassing geographic barriers and dramatically reducing the cost of microfinance services to the entrepreneurs.
Internet resources, hardware, and software components are the target of criminal or malicious attempts to gain unauthorized control to cause interruptions, commit fraud, engage in blackmail or access private information. Malware is malicious software used and distributed via the Internet.
It includes computer viruses which are copied with the help of humans, computer worms which copy themselves automatically, software for denial of service attacks , ransomware , botnets , and spyware that reports on the activity and typing of users. Usually, these activities constitute cybercrime.
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Defense theorists have also speculated about the possibilities of cyber warfare using similar methods on a large scale. The vast majority of computer surveillance involves the monitoring of data and traffic on the Internet. Computers communicate over the Internet by breaking up messages emails, images, videos, web pages, files, etc. Packet Capture Appliance intercepts these packets as they are traveling through the network, in order to examine their contents using other programs. A packet capture is an information gathering tool, but not an analysis tool. That is it gathers "messages" but it does not analyze them and figure out what they mean.
The large amount of data gathered from packet capturing requires surveillance software that filters and reports relevant information, such as the use of certain words or phrases, the access of certain types of web sites, or communicating via email or chat with certain parties. Some governments, such as those of Burma , Iran , North Korea , Mainland China , Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates restrict access to content on the Internet within their territories, especially to political and religious content, with domain name and keyword filters.
In Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, major Internet service providers have voluntarily agreed to restrict access to sites listed by authorities. While this list of forbidden resources is supposed to contain only known child pornography sites, the content of the list is secret. Many free or commercially available software programs, called content-control software are available to users to block offensive websites on individual computers or networks, in order to limit access by children to pornographic material or depiction of violence.
As the Internet is a heterogeneous network, the physical characteristics, including for example the data transfer rates of connections, vary widely. It exhibits emergent phenomena that depend on its large-scale organization. The volume of Internet traffic is difficult to measure, because no single point of measurement exists in the multi-tiered, non-hierarchical topology.
Traffic data may be estimated from the aggregate volume through the peering points of the Tier 1 network providers, but traffic that stays local in large provider networks may not be accounted for.
An Internet blackout or outage can be caused by local signalling interruptions. Disruptions of submarine communications cables may cause blackouts or slowdowns to large areas, such as in the submarine cable disruption.
Internet History Sourcebooks
Less-developed countries are more vulnerable due to a small number of high-capacity links. Land cables are also vulnerable, as in when a woman digging for scrap metal severed most connectivity for the nation of Armenia. In , researchers estimated the energy used by the Internet to be between and GW, less than two percent of the energy used by humanity. This estimate included the energy needed to build, operate, and periodically replace the estimated million laptops, a billion smart phones and million servers worldwide as well as the energy that routers, cell towers, optical switches, Wi-Fi transmitters and cloud storage devices use when transmitting Internet traffic.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the worldwide computer network. For other uses, see Internet disambiguation.
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Not to be confused with the World Wide Web. Global system of connected computer networks. An Opte Project visualization of routing paths through a portion of the Internet. Information infrastructure. Book Index Outline. See also: Capitalization of "Internet". Main article: Internet governance. See also: List of countries by number of Internet users and List of countries by Internet connection speeds.
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See also: Global Internet usage and English in computing. Share of population using the Internet . Internet users by language . Website content languages . Internet users in as a percentage of a country's population. Main articles: Global digital divide and Digital divide. Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in as a percentage of a country's population. Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in as a percentage of a country's population. See also: Internet censorship , Mass surveillance , and Social media use in politics.
Main article: Internet security. Main article: Computer and network surveillance. See also: Signals intelligence and Mass surveillance. Main articles: Internet censorship and Internet freedom. See also: Culture of fear and Great Firewall. Internet censorship and surveillance by country     .
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Internet portal. Retrieved 27 June Hoffman and S. USA Today.
Retrieved 31 July Oxford English Dictionary 3rd ed. Oxford University Press. September Subscription or UK public library membership required. World Wide Web Consortium. Archived from the original on 6 October Retrieved 13 August A link is a connection from one Web resource to another.